deepa jawahar jawahar, anju e n


In recent times the tourism industry has become an important source of income and also key economic growth indicator across the world. The tourism industry is also highly vulnerable to natural and man-made calamities. Over the years, media coverage of the disaster has conveyed the resulting loss of life, human suffering, public and private property damage, economic and social disruption. This period between the disaster and restoration of normalcy can be defined as a tourism crisis for a tourist destination which can threaten the normal operation and conduct of tourism allied business. This paper tries to explore the strategies used by companies to market their products at the time of economic downturn, which can be applied in a place brand context in the tourism sector. The study has utilized the concept of place brand equity to explain the situation and strategy because brand equity is the actual valuation and the perception of a brand. An extensive literature review has been conducted to identify the marketing strategies of branded consumer products at the time of economic downturns and is explained from the lenses of various dimensions of place brand equity.


economic downturn, place brand awareness, place brand equity, place brand loyalty, and tourism.


Aaker, D. A., & Equity, M. B. (1991). Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name. New York, 28(1), 35-37.

Agapito, D., Pinto, P., & Mendes, J. (2017). Tourists' memories, sensory impressions and loyalty: In loco and post-visit study in Southwest Portugal. Tourism Management, 58, 108-118.

Lamond, D., Dwyer, R., Arendt, S., & Brettel, M. (2010). Understanding the influence of corporate social responsibility on corporate identity, image, and firm performance. Management Decision.

Ashworth, G., & Goodall, B. (2013). Can places be sold for tourism?. In Marketing Tourism Places (RLE Tourism) (pp. 25-40). Routledge.

Aziz, N., Kefallonitis, E., & Friedman, B. A. (2012). Turkey as a destination brand: Perceptions of United States visitors. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2(9).

Baloglu, S., & Brinberg, D. (1997). Affective images of tourism destinations. Journal of travel research, 35(4), 11-15.

Beerli, A., & Martin, J. D. (2004). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of tourism research, 31(3), 657-681.

Bigne, J. E., Sanchez, M. I., & Sanchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behaviour: inter-relationship. Tourism Management, 22(6), 607-616.

Blackshaw, P. (2004). Consumer-generated media (CGM) 101: Word-of-mouth in the age of the web-fortified consumer. http://www. nielsen-online. com/downloads/us/buzz/nbzm_wp_CGM101. pdf.

Boo, S., Busser, J., & Baloglu, S. (2009). A model of customer-based brand equity and its application to multiple destinations. Tourism Management, 30(2), 219-231.

Cai, L. A. (2002). Cooperative branding for rural destinations. Annals of tourism research, 29(3), 720-742.

Camarero, C., Garrido, M. J., & Vicente, E. (2010). Components of art exhibition brand equity for internal and external visitors. Tourism Management, 31(4), 495-504.

Choi, J. G., Tkachenko, T., & Sil, S. (2011). On the destination image of Korea by Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 32(1), 193-194.

Cobb-Walgren, C. J., Ruble, C. A., & Donthu, N. (1995). Brand equity, brand preference, and purchase intent. Journal of advertising, 24(3), 25-40.

Crompton, J. L. (1979). An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of travel research, 17(4), 18-23.

Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of tourism studies, 2(2), 2-12.

Faulkner, B., & Vikulov, S. (2001). Katherine, washed out one day, back on track the next: a post-mortem of a tourism disaster. Tourism Management, 22(4), 331-344.

Foroudi, P., Melewar, T. C., & Gupta, S. (2014). Linking corporate logo, corporate image, and reputation: An examination of consumer perceptions in the financial setting. Journal of Business Research, 67(11), 2269-2281.

Gartner, W. C., & Ruzzier, M. K. (2011). Tourism destination brand equity dimensions: Renewal versus repeat market. Journal of Travel Research, 50(5), 471-481.

Hankinson, G. (2001). Location branding: A study of the branding practices of 12 English cities. Journal of Brand Management, 9(2), 127-142.

Henderson, J. C. (2006). Tourism in Dubai: Overcoming barriers to destination development. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8(2), 87-99.

Horng, J. S., Liu, C. H., Chiu, H. Y., & Tsai, C. Y. (2012). The role of international tourist perceptions of brand equity and travel intention in culinary tourism. The Service Industries Journal, 32(16), 2607-2621.

Hoyer, W. D., & Brown, S. P. (1990). Effects of brand awareness on choice for a common, repeat-purchase product. Journal of consumer research, 17(2), 141-148.

Inversini, A., & Masiero, L. (2014). Selling rooms online: the use of social media and online travel agents. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Law, R., Bai, B., Ip, C., & Leung, R. (2011). Progress and development of information and communication technologies in hospitality. International journal of contemporary hospitality management.

Isacsson, A., & Gretzel, U. (2011). Facebook as an edutainment medium to engage students in sustainability and tourism. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology.

Jacoby, J., & Chestnut, R. W. (1978). Brand loyalty: Measurement and management.

Jeuring, J. H. (2015). Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. The Netherlands. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 5(2), 65-75.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of marketing, 57(1), 1-22.

Kim, J. H. (2014). The antecedents of memorable tourism experiences: The development of a scale to measure the destination attributes associated with memorable experiences. Tourism management, 44, 34-45.

Kim, K. H., Kim, K. S., Kim, D. Y., Kim, J. H., & Kang, S. H. (2008). Brand equity in hospital marketing. Journal of business research, 1(61), 75-82.

Konecnik, M., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Customer-based brand equity for a destination. Annals of tourism research, 34(2), 400-421.

Lee, S., Scott, D., & Kim, H. (2008). Celebrity fan involvement and destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3), 809-832.

Lim, M. H., & Goh, S. K. (2012). How Malaysia weathered the financial crisis: Policies and possible lessons. How to Prevent the Next Crisis: Lessons from Country Experiences of The Global Financial Crisis. The North-South Institute.

Liu, C. H. S., & Chou, S. F. (2016). Tourism strategy development and facilitation of integrative processes among brand equity, marketing and motivation. Tourism Management, 54, 298-308.

Mason, M. C., & Nassivera, F. (2013). A conceptualization of the relationships between quality, satisfaction, behavioral intention, and awareness of a festival. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 22(2), 162-182.

Metelka, C. J. (1986). The dictionary of tourism. Merton House Travel and Tourism Publishers.

Beverland, M., Lindgreen, A., Napoli, J., Morgan, F., Deeter‐Schmelz, D., & Moberg, C. R. (2007). Branding implications of partner firm‐focal firm relationships in business‐to‐business service networks. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing.

Nadeau, J., Heslop, L., O’Reilly, N., & Luk, P. (2008). Destination in a country image context. Annals of tourism Research, 35(1), 84-106.

Nusair, K. K., Bilgihan, A., & Okumus, F. (2013). The role of online social network travel websites in creating social interaction for Gen Y travelers. International journal of tourism research, 15(5), 458-472.

Richard, L. O. (1997). Satisfaction: a behavioral perspective on the consumer. New York.

Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty?. Journal of marketing, 63(4_suppl1), 33-44.

Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism destination loyalty. Journal of travel research, 39(1), 78-84.

Pan, B., & Li, X. R. (2011). The long tail of destination image and online marketing. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(1), 132-152.

Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. (2005). Consumer‐based brand equity: improving the measurement–empirical evidence. Journal of Product & Brand Management.

Parsons, W. (1996). Crisis management. Career development international, 1(5), 26-28.

Pauchant, T. C., & Mitroff, I. I. (1992). Transforming the crisis-prone organization: Preventing individual, organizational, and environmental tragedies. Jossey-Bass.

Pike, S., Bianchi, C., Kerr, G., & Patti, C. (2010). Consumer-based brand equity for Australia as a long-haul tourism destination in an emerging market. International marketing review, 27(4), 434-449.

Ritchie J. R. B., Molinar C. M. A., Frechtling D. C. (2010). Impacts of the world recession and economic crisis on tourism: North America, Journal of Travels Research, 49, 3-5.

Rodosthenous, N. (2017). The impact of the economic crisis on tourism: the case of Greece.

Sheng, A. (2009). From Asian to global financial crisis: An Asian regulator's view of unfettered finance in the 1990s and 2000s. Cambridge University Press.

Shoemaker, S., & Lewis, R. C. (1999). Customer loyalty: the future of hospitality marketing. International journal of hospitality management, 18(4), 345-370.

Song, H. and Shanshan, L. (2010). Impacts of the financial and economic crisis on tourism In Asia. Journal of Travel Research, 49, 16–30.

Sönmez, S. F., Backman, S. J., & Allen, L. (1994). Managing tourism crises: A guidebook. Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University.

Stabler, M. J., Papatheodorou, A., & Sinclair, M. T. (2009). The economics of tourism. Routledge.

Steiner, C., Richter, T., Dörry, S., Neisen, V., Stephenson, M. L., Lemma, A. F., & Mitchell, J. G. (2012). Economic crisis, international tourism decline and its impact on the poor. Economic crisis, international tourism decline and its impact on the poor.

Tong, X., & Hawley, J. M. (2009). Measuring customer-based brand equity: empirical evidence from the sportswear market in China. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(4), 262-271.

Vinh, T. T., & Nga, V. T. Q. (2015). The relationship between components of customer-based brand equity for destination: Conceptual framework and preliminary testing for scales. South East Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, 7(2), 47-53.

Ward, S. (2005). Selling places: the marketing and promotion of towns and cities 1850-2000. Routledge.

Yeoman, I. (2012). 2050-tomorrow's tourism (Vol. 55). Channel View Publications.

Yuwo, H., Ford, J. B., & Purwanegara, M. S. (2013). Customer-based brand equity for a tourism destination (CBBETD): The specific case of Bandung City, Indonesia. Organizations and markets in Emerging Economies, 4(1), 8-22.

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.