Forbes Kabote, Patrick Walter Mamimine, Zororo Muranda


Most scholars portray tourism as a concept foreign to ‘natives’ and brought about by leisure seeking relatively rich foreigners. This conceptualisation gives the notion of a ‘real’ tourist being someone who is foreign to any destination. This is contrary to post-modern theorisation that conceptualises tourism as an engagement and experience. This problematizes the conventional WTO definition of a tourist. Content analysis of literature marshals evidence of existence of a knowledge gap and an opportunity for Third World destinations to mainstream domestic tourism as a panacea for sustainable tourism development.


domestic tourism, tourism stakeholders, sustainable tourism development, domestic tourism concept



ADAMS, K. M. 1998. Domestic tourism and nation‐building in South Sulawesi. Indonesia and the Malay World, 26, 77-96.

ALAMMARI, A., KHALIF, A. A. & OTHMAN, G. 2015. Role of SMEs in Libyan tourism sector.

ALBRECHT, M. M. 2011. 'When You're Here, You're Family': Culinary Tourism and the Olive Garden Restaurant. Tourist Studies, 11, 99-113.


ALI, A. & FREW, A. J. 2010. ICT and its role in sustainable tourism development. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2010, 479-491.

ALNENG, V. 2002. The modern does not cater for natives Travel ethnography and the conventions of form. Tourist Studies, 2, 119-142.

ALTMAN, J. & FINLAYSON, J. 1993. Aborigines, tourism and sustainable development. Journal of Tourism Studies, 4, 38-50.

ARRINGTON, A. L. 2010. Competing for tourists at Victoria Falls: A historical consideration of the effects of government involvement. Development Southern Africa, 27, 773-787.

ATELJEVIC, I. & DOORNE, S. 2004. Cultural circuits of tourism: Commodities, place, and re-consumption. A companion to tourism, 291-302.

BECKEN, S. 2009. The carbon footprint of domestic tourism. Lincoln University. Environment, Society and Design Division.

BHUIYAN, M. A. H., ISLAM, R., SIWAR, C. & ISMAIL, S. M. 2010. Educational tourism and forest conservation: Diversification for child education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, 19-23.

BRUNDTLAND, G. 1987. Our common future: Report of the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development. United Nations, Oslo, 1-59.

CADARSO, M.-Á., GÓMEZ, N., LÓPEZ, L.-A., TOBARRA, M.-Á. & ZAFRILLA, J.-E. 2015. Quantifying Spanish tourism's carbon footprint: the contributions of residents and visitors: a longitudinal study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23, 922-946.

CALETRÍO, J. 2012. Simple living and tourism in times of ‘austerity’. Current Issues in Tourism, 15, 275-279.

CANAVAN, B. 2012. The Extent and Role of Domestic Tourism in a Small Island: The Case of the Isle of Man. Journal of Travel Research, XX, 1-13.

CHIRIKURE, S., MANYANGA, M., NDORO, W. & PWITI, G. 2010. Unfulfilled promises? Heritage management and community participation at some of Africa's cultural heritage sites. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16, 30-44.

CHIUTSI, S., MUKOROVERWA, M., KARIGAMBE, P. & MUDZENGI, B. K. 2011. The theory and practice of ecotourism in Southern Africa. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 2, 14-21.

CHOI, H. C. & SIRAKAYA, E. 2006. Sustainability indicators for managing community tourism. Tourism management, 27, 1274-1289.

DADVAR-KHANI, F. 2012. Participation of rural community and tourism development in Iran. Community Development, 43, 259-277.


EUSÉBIO, C. A. & CARNEIRO, M. J. A. 2012. Determinants of tourist–host interactions: An analysis of the university student market. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 13, 123-151.

FINKBEINER, M., SCHAU, E. M., LEHMANN, A. & TRAVERSO, M. 2010. Towards life cycle sustainability assessment. Sustainability, 2, 3309-3322.

GHIMIRE, K. B. 2013. The native tourist: Mass tourism within developing countries, Routledge.

GIAMPICCOLI, A., LEE, S. S. & NAURIGHT, J. 2015. Destination South Africa: comparing global sports mega-events and recurring localised sports events in South Africa for tourism and economic development. Current Issues in Tourism, 18, 229-248.

GOGOI, S. & BALAJI, P. 2015. Educational tourism and its impact: a case study from Kanchipuram, Chennai, India. The Clarion, 4, 112-115.

HALL, C. M. & LEW, A. A. 2009. Understanding and managing tourism impacts: An integrated approach, Routledge.

HINCH, T. 2004. Indigenous people and tourism. A companion to tourism, 246-257.

HOLMES, K., ROWLEY, S., ZINS, A. & HYDE, K. 2015. A native-visitor in Western Australia: an account of an insider-outsider. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9.

HOLMES, K., SMITH, K. A., LOCKSTONE-BINNEY, L. & BAUM, T. 2010. Developing the dimensions of tourism volunteering. Leisure Sciences, 32, 255-269.

HUGHES, D. M. 2010. Whiteness in Zimbabwe: Race, landscape, and the problem of belonging, Palgrave Macmillan.

JOHARI, S., RAMACHANDRAN, S., SHUIB, A. & HERMAN, S. 2015. Participation of the Bidayuh Community In Tourism Developmental Initiatives in Bau, Malaysia. Life Science Journal, 12.

KARAMBAKUWA, R. T., SHONHIWA, T., MUROMBO, L., MAUCHI, F. N., GOPO, N. R., DENHERE, W., TAFIREI, F., CHINGARANDE, A. & MUDAVAHU, V. 2011. The impact of Zimbabwe tourism authority initiatives on tourist arrivals in Zimbabwe (2008-2009). Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13, 68-77.

KORSTANJE, M. E. 2011. Rent-A-Car Industry: A Case Study in Argentina. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 6, 271-280.


CHOMNALEZ. Turismo: Estudos & Práticas (RTEP/UERN), Mossoró/RN,, 4, 72-84.

KORSTANJE, M. E. & GEORGE, B. 2015. The Impossible Sustainability: Applications of Relational Perspective in Tourism Fields. ECOFORUM, 4, 21-24.

KURTZMAN, J. 2005. Sports tourism categories. Journal of Sport Tourism, 10, 15-20.

KWARAMBA, H. M., LOVETT, J. C., LOUW, L. & CHIPUMURO, J. 2012. Emotional confidence levels and success of tourism development for poverty reduction: The South African Kwam eMakana home-stay project. Tourism management, 33, 885-894.

LEIPER, N. 1979. The framework of tourism: Towards a definition of tourism, tourist, and the tourist industry. Annals of tourism research, 6, 390-407.

LEPP, A. 2008. Tourism and dependency: An analysis of Bigodi village, Uganda. Tourism Management, 29, 1206-1214.

LIMA, I. B. & D'HAUTESERRE, A.-M. 2011. Community capitals and ecotourism for enhancing Amazonian forest livelihoods. Anatolia, 22, 184-203.

LIU, Z. 2003. Sustainable tourism development: A critique. Journal of sustainable tourism, 11, 459-475.

LU, J. & NEPAL, S. K. 2009. Sustainable tourism research: an analysis of papers published in theJournal of Sustainable Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17, 5-16.

MATARRITA-CASCANTE, D., BRENNAN, M. A. & LULOFF, A. 2010. Community agency and sustainable tourism development: The case of La Fortuna, Costa Rica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18, 735-756.

MATHIESON, A. & WALL, G. 1982. Tourism, economic, physical and social impacts, Longman.

MAZIMHAKA, J. 2006. The Potential Impact of Domestic Tourism on Rwanda’s Tourism Economy. School of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

MAZIMHAKA, J. 2007. Diversifying Rwanda's tourism industry: a role for domestic tourism. Development Southern Africa, 24, 491-504.

MBITI, J. S. 2015. Introduction to African religion, Waveland Press.

MCCABE, S. 2009. WHO NEEDS A HOLIDAY? EVALUATING SOCIAL TOURISM. Annals of Tourism Research, 36, 667-688.

MCCABE, S. & DIEKMANN, A. 2015. The rights to tourism: reflections on social tourism and human rights. Tourism Recreation Research, 40, 194-204.

MEJÍA, C. V. & BRANDT, S. 2015. Managing tourism in the Galapagos Islands through price incentives: A choice experiment approach. Ecological Economics, 117, 1-11.

MIHALIČ, T. 2000. Environmental management of a tourist destination: A factor of tourism competitiveness. Tourism management, 21, 65-78.

MOLZ, J. G. 2004. Tasting an imagined Thailand: Authenticity and culinary tourism in Thai restaurants. Culinary tourism, 53-75.

MOSELEY, J., STURGIS, L. & WHEELER, M. 2007. Improving domestic tourism in Namibia: Project report. Worcester, Massachusetts: Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

MOUFAKKIR, O., NASSAR, M. A., MOSTAFA, M. M. & REISINGER, Y. 2015. Factors influencing travel to Islamic destinations: an empirical analysis of Kuwaiti nationals. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9, 36-53.

MUNJAL, S., JAUHARI, V., TEARE, R. & JAUHARI, V. 2015. Leveraging the cultural and economic value of fairs and festivals in India. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 7.

NASSER, N. 2003. Planning for urban heritage places: reconciling conservation, tourism, and sustainable development. Journal of planning literature, 17, 467-479.

PAGE, S. 2007. Tourism management: managing for change, Routledge.

PIETERSE, J. N. 2010. Development theory, Sage.

POON, A. 1993. Tourism, technology and competitive strategies, CAB international.

PULIDO-FERNÁNDEZ, J. I., ANDRADES-CALDITO, L. & SÁNCHEZ-RIVERO, M. 2015. Is sustainable tourism an obstacle to the economic performance of the tourism industry? Evidence from an international empirical study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23, 47-64.

QUEZADA, R. L. 2004. Beyond Educational Tourism: Lessons Learned while Student Teaching Abroad. International Education Journal, 5, 458-465.

REES, W. E. & SETTLEMENTS, U. O. B. C. C. F. H. 1989. Defining" sustainable Development", Centre for Human Settlements, University of British Columbia.

REID, M. & SCHWAB, W. 2006. Barriers to Sustainable Development Jordan's Sustainable Tourism Strategy. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 41, 439-457.

RITCHIE & CROUCH, G. 1993. Competitiveness in international tourism: A framework for understanding and analysis, World Tourism Education and Research Centre, University of Calgary.

RITCHIE, B. W. 2003. Managing educational tourism, Channel View Publications.

ROGERSON, C. M. & LISA, Z. ‘Sho’t left’: Changing domestic tourism in South Africa. Urban Forum, 2005. Springer, 88-111.

SAARINEN, J. 2010. Local tourism awareness: Community views in Katutura and King Nehale conservancy, Namibia. Development Southern Africa, 27, 713-724.

SCHEYVENS, R. 2007. Poor cousins no more valuing the development potential of domestic and diaspora tourism. Progress in Development Studies, 7, 307-325.

SHEEHAN, L., RITCHIE, J. B. & HUDSON, S. 2007. The destination promotion triad: Understanding asymmetric stakeholder interdependencies among the city, hotels, and DMO. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 64-74.

SHELDON, J. 2005. The challenges to sustainability in island tourism. Occasional Paper, 2005, 01.

SINCLAIR-MARAGH, G. & GURSOY, D. 2015. Imperialism and tourism: The case of developing island countries. Annals of Tourism Research, 50, 143-158.

SINDIGA, I. 1996. Domestic tourism in Kenya. Annals of Tourism Research, 23, 19-31.

SKANAVIS, C. & SAKELLARI, M. 2011. International tourism, domestic tourism and environmental change: Environmental education can find the balance. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 6, 233-249.

SMITH, V. L. & EADINGTON, W. R. 1992. Tourism alternatives: Potentials and problems in the development of tourism, University of Pennsylvania Press.

SWARBROOKE, J. 1999. Sustainable tourism management, Cabi.

TANG, Y. 2015. Dynamic simulation of regional sustainable tourism development system. THE SIMULATION OF REASONABLE SCHEDULING MODEL OF MULTI TASKS IN BUSINESS, 3, 10.

TORRES, R. 2002. Cancun's Tourism development from Fordist spectrum of Analysis. Tourist Studies, 2, 87-116.

URRY, J. 2002. The tourist gaze, Sage.

URRY, J. & LARSEN, J. 2011. The tourist gaze 3.0, Sage.

VANPOOL, C. S. & VANPOOL, T. L. 2015. Religion and Cosmology in the Casas Grandes World. Ancient Paquimé and the Casas Grandes World, 83.

WALL, G. & MATHIESON, A. 2006. Tourism: change, impacts, and opportunities, Pearson Education.

YANG, L. 2012. Impacts and challenges in agritourism development in Yunnan, China. Tourism Planning & Development, 9, 369-381.

YOUSEFI, M. & MARZUKI, A. 2015. An Analysis of Push and Pull Motivational Factors of International Tourists to Penang, Malaysia. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 16, 40-56.

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.